Gnathology studies functional connections between separate elements teeth and jaw system and uses this knowledge in diagnosis and therapy. Gnathology stands as original platform of treatment diseases related with violation of occlusion. Guaranty of stability of any result directly depends on correctness of reproduction of dynamic and static occlusion. Thereby issue of correct occlusion consolidates dental specialists of different fields around patient. Stomatology treatment of any difficulty effects accordance of dentitions, conditions of jaw muscles and temporomandibular joint. For predicting of any complications during dental therapy and prosthetics, it is important to consider concepts and principals of gnathology. Modern quality dental prosthetics, implantation, surgical intervention are impossible without knowledge of gnathology.
The slightest deviation from natural shape of the tooth may be the beginning of serious changes as the join during process of jawing will return to it place in unnatural way. This cause overstrain of separate muscle groups of the neck, leads to the emergence of “groundless” headaches and neck pain, clicks in the joins of the jaw and sometimes even changes in the bones of the maxilla’s and mandibles. Gnathologist should identify that violations of clothing of individual teeth or dentition appeared after prosthetic or filling and adjust it correctly.
From functional and esthetic point of view, making complete restoration is possible due to the use of modern devices, which are able to reproduce movements of the mandible precisely. Articulator is that kind of mechanical device, which simulates the movements of the mandible, which are close to the movements of the jaw of the patient and models occlusal teeth contacts during mastication. This device allows to make visual examination of the ratio of the dentitions due to precise orientation of diagnostic models of the maxilla and mandible, fixed in it, and to use these results in the manufacture of prosthetic construction. Articulator and method of wax modeling made it possible to manufacture any prosthetic restoration with minimal adjustment of oral cavity of the patient.
Along with other diagnostic methods, X-ray diagnostics plays an important role in gnathology. Teleradiography picture is an X-ray picture of a skull in the forward and lateral projections and applies in cephalometry for measuring different parts of the front part of the skull, relative to each other. This method provides an opportunity for the doctor to determine position of the teeth relative to the jaw and helps to identify type of bite, to detect pathology in maxillofacial area or asymmetry. Teleradiography picture analysis allows determining of directions of movement of the teeth, which helps to predict results of orthodontic treatment or to plan maxillofacial surgeries.
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